Preparing for Biological and Chemical Terrorism:
A Practical Guide to Antibiotics and
Their Usage for Survival
Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H.
Disclaimer and Background
is for educational purposes only. It is intended to help in the
event of biological and chemical weapons attacks on civilian
populations. It is not provided in order to diagnose or treat
any disease, illness, or injury of the body, mind, or spirit.
The author, publisher,
and distributors of this work accept no responsibility for people
using or misusing the potentially life-saving information in
from any disease, illness, or injury should, as Hippocrates prescribed, "learn
to derive benefit from the illness." In this sense, in the context
of "America's New War" on terrorism, diagnosing the root causes
of contemporary threats best derives "benefit". That is, comprehend
the evil bringing on such illness and distress. The macroscopic--political,
social, moral, and personal forces, beside the microscopic agents,
are best identified to provide appropriate treatments.
applications against germ warfare discussed herein are not well-established
medical practices. They are best considered speculative, but
reasonable, given the urgent and widespread risks of biological
attack for which there is no precedent, nor adequate scientific
research. Discussions herein are intended to provide self-help
strategies under emergency circumstances in which professional
care is unavailable, as is anticipated following large-scale
exposures of unprotected populations to lethal biologicals.
It must be stressed
that the unsupervised lay use of antibiotics is dangerous for
several reasons: 1) antibiotics may cause potentially fatal reactions
(e.g., allergy, asthma, and death); 2) antibiotics can prompt
greater growth, development, and spread of resistant pathogens
such as fungi and Mycoplasma prompting more severe or alternative
infections; 3) antibiotic usage can make it more difficult for
physicians to diagnose life-threatening infectious illnesses.
Thus, self-medication is not advised under normal circumstances
of medical personnel availability.
though certain antibiotics are customarily prescribed to kill
certain strains of bacteria, germ warfare presents unique challenges.
Biological weapons developers have routinely developed germ strains,
such as anthrax, smallpox, influenza, Mycoplasma, Brucella, and
more, that are antibiotic resistant. At the same time, vaccines
and vaccine manufacturers have proven themselves to be highly
the event of a biological attack, the initial benefits of antibiotic
prophylaxis and treatment may be jeopardized by a second wave
of infection of the same microbe, or secondary infections with
other germs. These are expected due to subsequent disease transmission
by infected insects, such as flies, fleas, and ticks, and immune
compromised victims in which secondary infections are common.
are classified either "Gram-positive" or "Gram-negative" due
to their structure and staining characteristics, which reflect
their susceptibility to certain antibiotics. The Penicillin family
of antibiotics has been effective against Gram-positive infections.
Alternatively, the Tetracyclines have been used successfully
to combat Gram-negative agents. These will be discussed in more
Near the beginning
of a widespread biological attack, it may be extremely difficult
to determine precisely the causative agent, and thereby select
the proper antibiotic. This is due to: 1) the latency, or slow
growth period of the germ within exposed individuals, and 2)
biological weapons specialists often mix microbes to be used
in such a manner as to confuse diagnosis and delay effective
a consensus of authorities predicts inhalation anthrax is among
the likeliest biological weapons to be used by terrorists. This
is due to its relative ease of manufacture, durability of spores,
and difficulty of delayed treatment. Anthrax is a Gram-positive
rod-shaped Bacillus. To be more effective in killing large populations,
authorities suggest that Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pasteurella
tularensis, may accompany such attacks. This germ is likewise
rod-shaped to confuse accurate diagnosis and delay time-critical
For the above
reasons a "combination therapy" may be indicated and most useful
in saving lives following a biological weapons attack.
Safe and effective
antibiotic dosages depend on accurate weights and measurements.
For this reason, the following recommendations and basic knowledge
is provided for lay civilians under emergency situations:
weigh antibiotics in an emergency, use the chart below. Begin
by placing a ceramic cup on a postal scale. Weigh it. Next, add
the powder you wish to weigh to the desired amount. For instance,
if the cup alone weighs four ounces, and you require one ounce
of powdered antibiotic (where, according to the chart, one ounce
equals approximately thirty (30) grams, that is, thirty 1,000
milligram [mg.] doses), set (or tip) the scale at five ounces
with the desired antibiotic.
The same method
may be used for measuring liquid doses. However, one ounce of
liquid antibiotic may weigh less than once ounce on a scale.
For this reason it is wise to use a graduated measuring containing,
if possible, for measuring liquids.
Measures and Conversions
Weights and Measures
1 ounce (oz.) of solid = nearly 30 grams (Gm.)
1 pound (lb.) = 454 grams (Gm.)
1 kilogram (kg.) = 2.2 pounds (lb.)
1 gram (Gm.) = 1,000 milligrams (mg.)
1 grain (gr.) = 64.8 mg.
Weights and Measures
1 ounce (oz.) of liquid = nearly 30 milliliters (ml.)
1 pint = 473 ml. (sometimes rounded up to 480 ml.)
1 teaspoon (tsp.) = 5 ml.
1 tablespoon = 15 ml. (that is, half [.5] an ounce)
1 milliliter (common droppers held upright) = approximately
20 drops of liquid
400,000 units of penicillin = 250 milligrams (mg.)
Usage and Duration of Treatment
circumstances, antibiotics are intended to be used for approximately
one to two weeks. This duration is prescribed in order to kill
more slowly growing germs, such as those initially in spore forms
that require incubation for disease expression.
may require less careful treatment durations. This is particularly
true if antibiotic shortages occur as expected following a biological
weapons attack. In this case, rationing may be necessary and
helpful in saving more lives. The shortest duration of
antibiotic coverage recommended following a biological attack
is from the onset of symptoms to at least 72 hours after the
person's symptoms completely disappear.
prophylaxis (for prevention of disease) should begin as soon
as a biological weapons attack is confirmed for individuals
at risk of exposure. In other words, it is best to leave
risky environments in advance of possible exposures. Certainly,
urban populations are at greatest risk for biological and chemical
Reactions to Antibiotics
normal circumstances, individuals who are hypersensitive, or
allergic, to antibiotics should avoid taking them. However, following
a biological weapons attack, it may warrant the risk of allergic
reaction, particularly if antihistamines (such as Benadryl) are
available, rather than contracting the infectious disease which
is often more life-threatening. In this case, individuals who
develop symptoms of allergy, including skin rashes, should ideally
be under the care of a physician or hospital staff. Careful monitoring
of even seemingly benign skin rashes is advised because of more
urgent conditions that may result from simple allergic reactions.
known allergies to specific antibiotics should, obviously, try
to avoid taking these antibiotics. Alternative antibiotics, in
this case, should be sought and used. For example, people allergic
to penicillin may be able to effectively substitute erythromycin.
As detailed below,
there are several types of penicillin, all of which may cause
severe allergies and fatal reactions. Penicillin G and penicillin
V have been known to cause more severe reactions than ampicillin.
Similarly, penicillin injections have been known to cause more
severe reactions than similar doses taken orally.
ten percent of people allergic to penicillin are also allergic
to the cephalosporin antibiotics. The good news is that the incidence
of deadly reactions to the entire class of cephalosporin antibiotics
is very low.
In some liquid
penicillins, manufacturers mix the anesthetic procaine (i.e.,
Novocain) into their formulas. Therefore, persons allergic to
this commonly used dental anesthetic should avoid taking liquid
suggested below for use in case of bioterrorism or biowarfare
do not contain sulfur or "sulfa" drugs to which many people are
Foresight Regarding Pharmaceutical Supplies
source of breaking news concerning a biological or chemical attack,
launched by terrorists or other foes, is the mainstream media.
By the time you hear such reports, it is likely that hospital
emergency rooms, and doctor's offices, will be full of ailing
victims. It typically takes a day or longer for symptoms of infectious
diseases to manifest. The first signs and symptoms of a covert
attack include inexplicable headaches and flu-like symptoms.
Such is the case
with anthrax. The first indication of an anthrax attack, providing
the strain had not been modified, is cattle becoming sick and
dying. This can happen in a matter of hours. Moreover, this is
an indication to begin antibiotic prophylaxis.
Under such trying
circumstances, you can expect there to be tremendous demand for
medical supplies and pharmaceuticals in the wake of a terrorist
attack. It is, therefore, highly advisable to consider beforehand
what medical supplies might be essential for your survival and
the protection of your loved ones.
on a regimen of prescription drugs should stock, perhaps, a three
months supply in a cool, dark, and dry closet or basement.
be purchased in bulk from pharmacists or livestock and veterinarian
In case you need
to leave your home or workplace in an emergency, try to plan,
in advance, transporting your antibiotics and other medicinal
requirements with you. Maintain access to standard emergency
kits, particularly during times of possible trouble. Keeping
one in your car is a good idea, providing the car doesn't overheat.
Given these constraints, diabetics,
on the move in an emergency, should try to keep their insulin
at room temperature until they are resettled. Above 80 degrees
and while freezing insulin will begin to degrade.
In general, when
traveling or storing antibiotics and medications in your car,
be aware of extreme temperatures. Extreme heat and cold often
inactivates, like insulin, many medicines.
Guide to Antibiotics and Their Uses
penicillin-G (Pen G), along with more the common penicillin-V
(Pen V), are used to fight gram-positive bacteria, such as anthrax.
Pentids, the brand name for penicillin-G, come in 400 and 800mg
pills. Brand names for penicillin-V include V-Cillin-K and Pen
Vee K. The basic Pen G may be purchased from farm and veterinary
stores for far less expense than through pharmacies, though make
sure you only buy the refrigerated brand. The active ingredients
in the unrefrigerated variety are far lower and potentially inadequate.
Pen G must be
taken on an empty stomach. This is not as critical for Pen V.
A dose of 250mg (i.e., 400,000 units), for people weighing 50
pounds or more, is taken four times daily. A rule of thumb for
children weighing less than 50 pounds, the dosage should be reduced
by 20% for every 10 pounds of less body weight.
are more likely to cause allergic reactions, and fatalities,
than synthetic penicillins such as ampicillin. Some of the allergic
reactions are caused by procaine (Novocain) that is added in
some Pen G formulas.
Brand names of
this synthetic penicillin include Principen, Omnipen, Polycillin
and Totacillin. These are also affective against gram-positive
microbes such as anthrax.
Dosages of ampicillin
are the same prescribed for penicillin. This antibiotic should
be taken, ideally, on an empty stomach.
Strains of anthrax
that resist penicillin may be more susceptible to destruction
by ampicillin. Also, ampicillin may be more helpful than penicillin
for killing a broader spectrum of infections.
These are also
effective against anthrax. One gram of Cephalexin taken every
six hours is recommended. Brand names for this are Keflex, Keflet
and Keftab. One gram of the related Cefadroxil, brand named Duricef,
should be taken every twelve hours.
(Macrolide family of antibiotics)
and its relatives provide a broader spectrum of coverage than
penicillins. Brand names of Erythromycin Pediamycin, Erythrocin,
Eryc, EES, Ery-Tab, PCE, Ilosone, and E-Mycin. Other related
antibiotics, such as clarithromycin (Biaxin) and azithromycin
(Z-pak or Zithromax) may also be effective. A liquid form of
erythromycin, called Gallimycin, is available for injection.
The oral dose of this injectable product is the same.
Taken on an empty
stomach, this may be used to treat more difficult cases of anthrax.
If upset stomach occurs, it should be consumed with a bit of
food. Avoid eating citrus fruits or products, which deactivate
these antibiotics during digestion. Note: Fatal heart attacks
may result from taking these antibiotics in combination with
Seldane (terfenadine), Hismanal, or Seldane-D.
weighing 150 pounds or more, a 500mg dose is recommended. People
weighing less should reduce their dosage proportionately.
that are effective against anthrax, tularemia, and the Bubonic
plague, include: Streptomycin, Gentamycin, and Neomycin. They
can all be extremely toxic. Primary organs at risk for destruction
by the aminoglycosides include the kidneys and inner ears.
Each of the aminoglycosides
must be injected, and cannot be taken orally. The oral dosage
forms of these antibiotics are effective only against gastrointestinal
(GI) tract infections of the stomach and intestines.
powder can be purchased in bulk. It cannot be absorbed when taken
orally, but it can be effective against certain biologicals striking
the GI tract such as botulism.
taken two to four times daily, in one to four gram doses, equally
spaced throughout the day. It can be used in combination with
tetracycline until the person's fever breaks. Then the tetracycline
can be continued alone. Otherwise, streptomycin should be used
consistently for a week to ten days.
effective against tularemia and the plague. It should be injected
intramuscularly or intravenously every eight hours in emergency
measures of 1.7mg per kilogram body weight. As soon as symptoms
of disease disappear, the dose should be reduced to 1.0mg per
kilogram of body weight for the remaining 7-10 day period.
is available in bulk through veterinary stores. It is likely
that this less expensive product may be successfully used orally
to defend against the plague or tularemia germs infecting the
given in doses of 500mg, four times daily, may be helpful against
anthrax, plague, and tularemia, though it has not been traditionally
prescribed for these. Use this only if the other aminoglycoside
antibiotics are unavailable.
In daily doses
of 300mg per kg. of body weight (i.e., 65mg. per pound), Ciproflavoxin
(Cipro) is effective against tularemia and anthrax. The daily
dose should be divided into four doses taken every six hours
for two weeks. Following the terrorist attacks on September 11,
2001 on the Pentagon and World Trade Center, this extremely expensive
drug has been in high demand as the FDA's antibiotic of choice
against anthrax. Disturbing politics regarding this selection
and its manufacturer-Bayer-may be found at http://www.tetrahedron.org.
anthrax, tularemia and plague, Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin)
has a relatively high rate of lethal side effects. Thus, persons
allergic to safer antibiotics should only use it, or in the event
other medications are unavailable. More expensive than other
antibiotics, this injectable product can also be consumed orally
and absorbed effectively into the bloodstream. Ideally, taken
on an empty stomach, it may be consumed with food to reduce stomach
has the same spectrum of activity as erythromycin. Thus, it should
never be given with erythromycin unless under emergency conditions
at the first sign of biowarfare-induced illness. It may, however,
be taken with Tetracycline for a broader spectrum of effectiveness.
This combination may be wise if it is unclear which biological
weapon is causing illness, and if rationing is not in effect.
form of chloramphenicol tastes awful! For people weighing 200
pounds or more, 2,500mg doses recommended.
(brand named Sumycin and Achromycin-V) are broad-spectrum antibiotics
available from farm supply shops and veterinary stores in the
form of oxytetracycline. These can be used effectively against
all most strains of anthrax, plague, and tularemia.
comes in bulk powder form under the brand name Terramycin-343.
It also comes in combination with livestock feed (Advance Calf
Medic). This could be used in a pinch if other antibiotics were
unavailable. There are 3 grams of active antibiotic in each pound
of feed. A low dose could be provided by consuming almost 1.5
ounces; a high dose twice that could be measured and eaten.
Two newer classes
of tetracycline are Doxycycline and Minocycline . Brand names
for these tetracyclines include the Doxycyclines-Vibramycin,
Vibra-tabs, Monodox and Doryx; and the Minocyclines called Minocin.
is typically taken four times a day, doxycyclines once per day
or twice per day when taken with Minocycline. The two newer cyclines
can be taken with food, not the older tetracycline. They, thus,
tend to cause fewer stomach upsets. Doxycycline is typically
less costly than traditional tetracycline, and Doxycycline and
Minocycline provide a broader spectrum of antibiotic effectiveness
than the old standard. Stains of biological weapons the may have
been manufactured to resist tetracycline might be more susceptible
to the newer cyclones.
As a rule of
thumb, four 250mg doses of tetracycline are prescribed daily,
that is, one dose every six hours for your typical 100-pound
person. For persons weighing less than 100 pound, reduce this
dose accordingly. For instance, if a 100-pound person receives
1,000mg per day, then a 50-pound person would receive 500mg per
day, or four 125mg doses q. 6 hours. The Doxycycline dosage is
typically 200mg the first day, and 100mg doses following for
up to ten days. The oxytetracycline (Terramycin) dose is the
same as standard tetracycline. Another alternative tetracycline,
called demeclocycline (Declomycin), may be substituted for standard
tetracycline employing the same dose schedule as well.
and Administering Your Antibiotics
and drugs can be preserved by refrigeration, so long as they
are kept dry. If traveling through extreme temperatures, antibiotics
should be encased in Styrofoam containers, at best, and efforts
should be made to avoid heat or freezing cold.
Warning: No drug
should be consumed beyond its expiration date, especially Tetracycline
antibiotics. Severe reactions may result from this expired antibiotic.
However, when faced with a life-or-death situation, as might
be presented with biological warfare or bioterrorism, such chances
might have to be taken.
typically administered orally or by injection. However, if the
patient is comatose, the oral route may be circumvented rectally
by using a plastic oral syringe available in most drugstores.
This should be inserted as deeply into the rectum as possible.
Use of a few drops of water, then larger amounts of cocoa butter,
for dissolving the antibiotic. Cocoa butter is available in most
drugstores in sticks that are melted in a jar placed in hot water.
The butter is commonly used for suppositories and will hold the
antibiotic for absorption better than water. Water may run out
of the rectum and thereby precious antibiotic may be lost. So
if water is all you have, use as little as possible to dissolve
and inject the measured amount of powdered antibiotic.
can be crushed and powdered by placing them between two napkins
on a hard surface and pounding them with another flat hard object
of active antibiotic is less, given the rectal route of administration.
For this reason, the dosages should be increased to compensate.
Healthy Gut Flora and Immunity
factors determine the outcome of a biological attack on any one
individual: 1) the quantity of germs to which the person has
been exposed, 2) the "pathogenicity" or power of the germs to
cause disease, which depends on the unique strain, and 3) the "host
resistance." This depends on the vitality of the individual's
the event of a biological or chemical attack, the first two factors
are largely, if not entirely, beyond the control of individuals.
It is upon this liability that terrorists act. But people can
make a profound difference affecting the third factor-human immunity-by
making a few simple choices. The first is, maintaining a healthy
scientific literature, the bacteria in the large and small intestine
help digest foods, support nutrient assimilation from foods,
are critical in preventing infectious diseases for a number of
reasons. For instance, Lactobacilli, commonly found in healthy
guts, helps prevent infections from eating foods contaminated
with biologicals such as Botulism. A healthy gut micro flora
also helps with the elimination of harmful cholesterol, toxic
chemicals, and cancer-causing compounds, both natural and man-made.
More than 90% of human immunity is, in fact, tied to lymphatic
activity around the gut. Consequently, a healthy immune system
is largely dependant on the intestinal flora.
microbes, typically found on organically grown foods, should
be consumed for boosting natural immunity against infectious
diseases, including anthrax and other potential biological weapons.
Far more effective than eating yogurt that contains Lactobacilli,
there are several products available in good health food stores
that supply a full pro-biotic spectrum of soil-based microbes
that many alternative health professionals have been prescribing
with very favorable results. One such product is called GI Flora
Pro (http://www.healingcelebrations.com; 1-888-508-4787), which
sells for about $29 for a 30-day supply.
A five-step protocol for boosting natural immunity to help fight biological
attacks is available from a non-profit publishing company, Tetrahedron,
LLC (http://www.tetrahedron.org/; 1-800-336-9266).
Their information includes how to: 1) detoxify your body, 2) deacidify
your body, 3) boost natural immunity, 4) oxygenate the blood and other
body tissues, and 5) bioelectrically manage infectious diseases and recoveries.
The material is presented in a 225 page hardcover book titled, Healing
Celebrations: Miraculous Recoveries Through Ancient Scriptures, Natural
Medicine and Modern Science. The book sells for $22.85, and the advice
may be life saving.
The following chart presents the biological weapons most likely to be
used during a terrorist attack, and details concerning its diagnosis
Symptoms and Treatment
fever, coughing, confusion, rash, joint and
joint and muscle pain. Tx: Tetracyclines, Pen G, ampicillin
blurred vision, difficulty in speaking and swallowing,
dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, spreaking weakness, Tx: Horse
headache, abdominal distress, inability to sit or stand,
swollen glands particularly in the groin, Tx: Hydration
diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, Tx: Hydration and
aching in head, muscles and joints, and fever. Second bout
is accompanied by a destructive rash . Tx: none but symptom
fever, malaise, cough, rash, and bleeding out. Tx: palliative
causes headache, nausea, fever and weakness Tx:
Tetracycline, Doxycycline or broad spectrum antibiotics.
and headache, meningeal irritation, swollen parotid glands
like mumps, skin rash with some, seizures, brain dysfunction.
headache, high fever, skin rashes with vesicular and pustular
stages of lesions. Death by secondary infections. Tx: palliative.
malaise, headache, liver swelling, ulcerating skin lesions,
possible lung involvement with coughing. Tx: Streptomycin,
Tetracycline and chloramphenicol.
The following chart presents the chemical weapons most likely to be used
during a terrorist attack, and details concerning diagnosis and self
and Self Aid
in chest. Difficulty breathing. Runny nose. Eyepain and
blurred vision. Nausea, seating, salivation, elevated pulse,
heartburn, vomiting, giddiness, muscle spasms, involuntary
urination, paralysis and respiratory arrest. Tx: Wash off
immediately and completely. Inject 2mg atropine into thigh,
followed by 4gm. Shot of parlidoxine mesylate (oxime).
If symptoms persist, give atropine again-two more 2mg doses
at 15 minute intervals. Apply emergency first aid, including
CPR for artificial respiration for approximately 2 hours
if breathing stops. Atropine can cause serious side effects
and must not be used unless there is certainty that nerve
gas has caused the poisoning.
skin irritant causes blistering of skin and lung damage.
High risk of developing pneumonia. Symptoms delayed for
up to 48 hours. Can be fatal. Tx: Wash off contamination
immediately and completely with water. Later washes will
cause worse pain. Use mydriatics, antibiotics, and local
anesthetics to reduce pain. Treat blisters palliatively
as burns. Bed rest.
Causes victim to drown in own mucous. Tx: Same as above.
skin irritant. Tearing with breathing difficulty. Nausea
and headache common. Tx: Codeine for cough and plenty of
warmth, oxygen and bed rest.
eye irritant. Causes coughing, tearing, flu-like symptoms,
nausea, and breathing problems. Tx: Wash eyes thoroughly
with warm soap and water. Breath lots of fresh air. Bed
Heart pounds irregularly with hastened pulse. Hallucination,
giddiness and maniacal behavior. Tx: Restrain victim. Quiet
Clean Water and Adequate Hydration
Having a pure water source following a biological or chemical weapons
attack is critical for two main reasons: 1) Victims frequently become
dehydrated, and 2) Purified, or distilled, water is needed for detoxification
of blood, liver, and kidneys. Following a biological or even chemical
weapons attack, water supplies may be contaminated. Water distillers
may be purchased, but most require electric power to run. The best transportable,
non-electric, water filtration system available is the British Berkefeld®.
It typically sells for $279 (http://www.prophecyandpreparedness.com/;
1-208-265-2575) and is the ideal hardware to have on hand to filter potentially
contaminated water supplies in emergency or survival situations.
Healthy Food Intake and Supplies
Consider what could happen to food supplies in the wake of an anthrax
attact. Cattle herds would likely need to be slaughtered causing a run
on remaining beef and dairy supplies. Prices for these commodities would
skyrocket. Contaminated grains might also need to be burned to prevent
further spreading of the anthrax spores during harvesting and transport.
Prices would likely rise here as well. There may be greatly increased
demand for flour, grains, dried cereal, and probably other baking supplies
as well. This is why many people have begun to stockpile some of these
resources as well.
the saying, "You are what you eat." If you decide to stock up
on essential food supplies for survival, it's wise to think of
boosting your immunity along with receiving the greatest value
for what you spend. The first and finest grain you might want
to stockpile for these concerns is called amaranth. Its cost
is reasonable, you can use if for baking, and best of all, it
contains all of the amino acids and enzymes you need for life.
The Aztec and Mayan civilizations depended mainly on amaranth
and good pure water for their strength and survival.
immunity, you want to be eating organically grown foods. One
product that contains a hefty amount of organic amaranth, and
other nutritionally wholesome and immunologically supportive
ingredients is called Green Harvest. Most people, under emergency
conditions, could live off of this good tasting powdered food
formula, mixed with water or organic juice(s). Green Harvest
is available in select health-food stores, and from the manufacturer
1-888-508-4787). It costs less than $35 for a one month supply.
The manufacturer supplies this product by the case at large discounts
for families that wish to stock up. Their website also provides
a host of other products and educational resources for boosting
natural immunity for preventive health care and improved recovery
rates from infectious diseases and cancers.
was written and posted
courtesy of Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz
and Tetrahedron, LLC
206 North 4th Avenue, Suite 147
Sandpoint, Idaho 83864
Toll free order line: 888-508-4787;
Office telephone: 208-265-2575;
Due to the urgency
of getting this information to the general public, all copyrights
on this text have been waved by Dr. Horowitz, October 1, 2000.
Please feel free to distribute this information in any form.