Polio, Hepatitis B and AIDS:
An Integrative Theory on a Possible Vaccine Induced Pandemic
Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D.,
President and Co-Founder,
Tetrahedron, LLC Incorporated, a nonprofit educational organization,
Post Office Box 2033, Sandpoint, Idaho, 83864, USA.
paper was accepted for publication in the Journal of Medical
Hypotheses. The final edited manuscript was published May 2001,
Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 553-694. Slight differences exist between
this paper and the final publication.
Editor-in-Chief: Dr. David F. Horrobin,
Kings Park House, Laurelhill Business Park,
Stirling FK7 9JQ, UK
that simian virus 40 (SV40) infected polio vaccines may be linked
to the evolution of acquired immunodeficiency disorder (AIDS),
and certain cancers, has been advanced. Most recently, investigators
discussed the likelihood of "gene-reshuffling" following SV40
infection as a precursor to acquired immune dysfunction. Findings
of recent SV40 infections in four children born after 1982 suggest
infections were transmitted vertically along gene lines. Earlier
observations proved activation of a retrovirus gene by a hepatitis
B virus (HBV) protein. This paper proposes a new integrative
theory on the origin of AIDS. It advances the possibility of
genetic recombinations with oncogene activation by HBV involving
SV40, chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz), and other simian
viruses containing reverse transcriptase, that likely infected
polio vaccinated blood donors to the initial hepatitis B (HB)
vaccine trails conducted on gay men in New York City and other
minority groups including Blacks in Uganda in the early to mid-1970s.
have advanced a theory of a polio vaccine linked evolution of
AIDS and certain cancers.(1-4) A possible link between SV40,
that contaminated early Salk and Sabin polio vaccines, and AIDS,
was initially explored by Kyle in The Lancet in 1992.(4) Investigators
Urnovitz(1), Butel(2-3) and others(4), discussed the likelihood
of "gene-reshuffling" following SV40 infection as a precursor
to acquired immune dysfunction and the development of certain
cancers. Likewise, Butel revealed evidence of recent SV40 infections
in four children born after 1982.(3) Her team advanced the likelihood
that the infections were transmitted vertically, along gene lines,
from parents who had received tainted polio vaccines. Earlier,
she observed the activation of a HTLV-1 retrovirus gene by a
HB virus protein.(5)
With an acknowledged
threat of SV40 recombination in association with immune suppression,
and possible oncogene development or activation in polio vaccine
and possibly HB vaccine recipients and their offspring, this
paper advances an integrative theory on the origin of AIDS. It
asserts the possibility of genetic recombinations between SV40,
chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz), and/or other simian
viruses containing reverse transcriptase such as the foamy retroviruses
(SFR), that likely infected blood donors who had first received
contaminated polio vaccines in the 1950s and early 1960s, before
volunteering for the HB vaccine trails conducted on gay men in
New York City (NYC), Blacks in central Africa, and other minority
groups in 1974 through 1975.
Ten years later,
in 1984, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
first responded to concerns that experimental HB vaccines, administered
during the 1970s to homosexual men in the United States, were
somehow linked to the AIDS epidemic.(6) Anonymous authors representing
the CDC, along with others from Merck, Sharp & Dohme (MSD),
and the State University of New York (SUNY), reported no trace
of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in samples of vaccine
supplied by MSD. Further, their epidemiologic analyses, conducted
on gay HB vaccine trial subjects in Denver and San Francisco,
showed no relationship between AIDS cases and HB vaccine exposure.
For unexplained reasons, homosexual males from New York City
were not included in their study.
Elucidating HIV-1's Origin
by a Spanish team suggested an early genetic evolution of HIV-1.(7)
Relatedly, in 1998, Zhu et al. described an African HIV-1 sequence
from 1959 and its implications regarding the origin of the AIDS
pandemic.(8) Later, Gao et al.(9) provided additional evidence
of HIV's link to African chimpanzees by "amplifying" two DNA
sequences, from two of six HIV genes, into "four overlapping
subgenomic fragments that together comprised a complete pro viral
genome," which they termed SIVcpzUS. In an editorial accompanying
this report by Weiss and Wragham,(10) it was noted that the chimpanzee
Gao et al. studied, "Marilyn," came to the United States Air
Force primate center in New Mexico like most other African primate
infants--free of sexually transmitted viruses. They implied that
Marilyn's infection could have originated in a laboratory.
Zhu et al. further
advanced an iatrogenic theory of HIV's origin when they confessed, "the
factors that propelled the initial spread of HIV-1 in central
Africa remain unknown: the role of large-scale vaccination campaigns
. . . should be carefully examined . . ." Although the possible
role contaminated vaccines might have played was not addressed
by these authors, they provided additional insights into the
inherent risk of in vitro and in vivo viral recombination(s)
when their data is compared with earlier scientific reports concerning
the HB vaccine.
Zhu et al. advanced a curious association that "[f]or most regions of
the HIV-1 genome, subtypes B and D are more closely associated with each
other than are any other subtypes with the major group."(8) Of the six
major AIDS virus subtypes, the B subtype is most common to North America.
The D subtype is most common to Uganda, and the F subtype is most common
in Zaire.(11) These authors' analysis showed an "unusual B/D/F clustering
found in [their] phylogenetic analyses."
In 1993, Myers
and colleagues published their "big bang" theory on the origin
of AIDS and HIV-1 based on sophisticated genetic analyses conducted
at the U.S. Government's Los Alamos Laboratory. They concluded
that subtypes B, D, and F, along with close African/Indian virus
relatives A, E and C, simultaneously emerged on three distant
contents, in behaviorally divergent populations no less, during
the early to mid-1970s, despite recognizing simian virus gene
sequences of earlier evolution.(11)
Based on the
above background and genetic findings, an iatrogenic mode of
transmission, as opposed to an isolated natural cross-species
jump, appears to more likely explain how HIV-1 might have simultaneously
emerged on three far removed continents among behaviorally divergent
populations during the early to mid 1970s.
origin and cross species transmission rumors have been advanced
regarding HIV-1 and its closest relative SIVcpz. The genetically
more distant relative HIV-2, and the even more divergent African
green monkey virus (SIVagm), are all believed, like HIV-1, to
have spontaneously leaped from the African jungle. Related explanations
included unprotected sex with nonhuman primates, monkey bites,
dining on bloody primate meat, needlestick injuries in primate
containment facilities or African hospitals, intercontinental
infected passenger travel, and even viral mutations associated
with global warming and jungle deforestation.(12) All these theories
seem tenuous, if not ludicrous, when considered in light of the
evidence compiled herein.
Given the above,
including the findings of Urnovitz(1), Butel(2-3) and others(4),
it is most reasonable to consider the polio vaccine as a likely
factor in the origin of AIDS. As reported by Essex, African green
monkey derived oral polio vaccines (OPV) were a constant reservoir
for SIV.(13) During OPV manufacturing procedures, viral mutations
and vaccine contaminations routinely occurred without much ado.
In America, for instance, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
even to the time of this writing, have not been able to assure
the quality and safety of vaccines, including those for polio
and HB.(14) Regarding the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines, according
to Martin (a previous FDA vaccine and cancer virus official)
and Kyle's report,(4) doses of OPV routinely contained as many
as 100 simian virus particles, including SV40, SIVs, and SFRs
overlooked by FDA overseers to uphold pharmaceutical industry
and regulatory standards.
However, as per
Myers's findings, HIV contaminated polio vaccines alone would
not account for the 1970s "big bang." Given the generally recognized
seven to ten year incubation period for HIV/AIDS expression,
an early polio vaccine transmitted pandemic would have likely
prompted initial indentifications of non-gay AIDS cases before
1970, and certainly no later than 1975. Instead, the first gay-related-immunodeficiency
disease (GRID) cases were heralded in New York City in 1981.(15)
Moreover, had the Salk or early Sabin vaccines transmitted HIV
between 1955 and 1965 as some have advanced,(1-4) then Myers's
conclusion would have likely reflected this, as would a North
American AIDS outbreak not initially confined to homosexual males.
Thus, it seems
prudent to consider the findings of Butel(5) concerning HB as
a potential retrovirus (e.g. HIV or HIV progenitor) activating
agent, and cofactor, delivered with the 1970-75 HB vaccines involving
New York's gay men, Willowbrook State School (WSS) mentally retarded
children, and Ugandan Blacks who had approximately ten years
earlier received monkey virus contaminated polio vaccines.
Polio and HB Vaccine Theories of AIDS
Given the administration
of simian virus contaminated, monkey kidney tissue derived, polio
vaccines in North America and Subsahara Africa from the mid 1950s
through at least the early 1960s; then later, in the same or
overlapping populations, the pilot testing of HB vaccines in
these same regions from 1973 to 1975, the major group subtypes,
B/D/F, as well as strains A/E, might have evolved in experimental
chimpanzees, and/or human test subjects, during the viral vaccine
production and testing processes. Subsequent HB vaccine production
methods for later trials incorporated additional contamination
risks with the mixing of chimpanzee incubated HB virus with human
blood. According to a 1975 report by Robert Purcell from the
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases of the National Institute for
Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), this blood was subsequently
pooled to produce four subtypes of experimental HB vaccine (referred
to as adw, ayw, adr, and ayr).(16,17) These experimental HB vaccine
subtypes were tested primarily in NYC and portions of Africa-regions
largely overlapping the predominance of major HIV-1 strains B,
D, and F. According to a 1979 NIAID task force report,(16) the
four live HB viral subtypes were subsequently transmitted to "high
in contemporary medical bioethics texts, the "high risk" label,
applied to groups predisposed to blood borne pathogen infections,
served to also justify gross violations of bioethics and informed
consent particularly during the HB vaccine experiments conducted
by Krugman and colleagues at the New York University Medical
Center (NYUMC) and affiliated NYC Blood Center labs.(18)
Dr. Krugman was
credited with "isolating" the first HB (MS-2) strain of virus
from a mentally retarded child. This pathogen was originally
called the "Australian antigen (AuAg)" due to its earlier identification
in Australia. Subsequently, Krugman et al., cultured the virus
in mentally retarded children before extracting AuAg for subsequent
HB vaccine trials. In related studies, a report by Litton Bionetics
staff to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) showed that by 1968,
AuAg had been extracted from human "plasma/serum" and injected
into eleven simians. Seven were reported "dead or transferred" by
was reported to be the leading supplier of African simians for
the NCI and America's biomedical community.(19) They were also
the U.S. military's sixth leading biological weapons contractor
according to the 1969 Congressional Record.(20) The question
of laboratory contamination is raised here by NCI documents showing
hepatitis, herpes, and retrovirus recombinants (including acute
lymphocytic leukemia virus hybridized with influenza or parainfluenza
viruses to propagate airborne leukemia) were being cultured and
tested before 1971 at Bionetics and collaborating laboratories
in northwest Uganda and near Bethesda.(19) Bionetics also administered
the "Special Virus Cancer Program" for the NCI and National Institutes
of Health (NIH) including HB collaborative studies between New
York investigators representing the Merck pharmaceutical company
and the International Agency for Research on Cancer operating
in France and Uganda.(19)
subjects for these HB vaccine trials included homosexual males
in NYC, Willowbrook State School (WSS) mentally retarded children
on Staten Island, and African Blacks. All subjects were not informed
that the four subtype HB vaccines being tested were partially
processed in live potentially contaminated chimpanzees, shipped
from Africa by Bionetics, then housed in NYC where biohazard
and containment problems, including the horizontal transmission
of infectious diseases, was routine.(17,18)
the development and testing of these four HB vaccine subtypes,
the blood from these experimentally infected human subjects was
later pooled and used to develop "perhaps 200,000 human doses" according
to Merck's vaccine chief, Maurice Hilleman.(18) Again, these
doses containing HB viruses serially passed from Australian humans,
to WSS children, into African chimpanzees before being reinoculated
into New Yorkers and central Africans by way of vaccines by 1975.(21)
This was perfect timing for the initial outbreak of GRID/AIDS
cases in these regions by the late 1970s.
a recovered interview, Dr. Hilleman reported unwittingly importing
AIDS virus into North America in contaminated monkeys destined
for vaccine research and development at Merck.(22) Likewise,
Dr. Hilleman's coauthor and senior Merck vaccine developer, Benjamin
Sweet, expressed regret that their early SV40 contaminated polio
vaccines may have contributed to contemporary cancer epidemics. "[N]ow,
with the theoretical links to HIV and cancer," he reported in
1998 on the internet, "it just blows my mind."(23)
the Possible Iatrogenic Origin of HIV-1
evidence exists to advance the generic thesis of vaccine laboratory
contamination associated with retroviral transmissions risking
epidemic outcomes. A classic example intimately related to this
polio/HB vaccine/AIDS hypothesis is the identification of HIV-2
by Max Essex and colleagues at the Harvard AIDS Institute. These
investigators published discovering HIV-2 among healthy Senegalese
female prostitutes.(24) In Senegal, prostitution is legal and
the sex workers are required to report for clinical examinations
and HB vaccinations periodically for relicensure. Eventually
investigators determined that the simian immunodeficiency virus
from the macaque monkey (SIVmac) and Essex's HIV-2 were genetically
identical.(25,26) Moreover, wild macaques were found not to harbor
this virus whatsoever. SIVmac was only found in laboratory contaminated
primates.(27) Thus, Shultz concluded that culturing monkey viruses
in human tissues, as is often done in viral vaccine production
labs, risks activating previously benign "retroviral genomes
carried in the germline for millions of years" into pathogens
capable of inducing immune dysfunction. He, therefore, advised
reexamining "any remaining [polio] vaccine lots by the polymerase
chain reaction" so as to identify HIV or related lentiviruses.(27)
Given the above evidence, the same should be urged for the earliest
HB vaccine lots.
Essex's 1996 presentation at the National AIDS Update Conference
in San Francisco, I had the opportunity to question him as to, "How,
other than through contaminated vaccines, could a monkey virus
that doesn't exist in the wild, end up infecting Senegalese female
prostitutes?" Evading the question he replied, "I can tell you
how my monkeys got infected. . . . Researchers had inoculated
the monkeys with human tissues during experiments [unrelated
to HIV] prior to them coming to my lab."(21)
Though his comment failed to explain how HIV-1 and HIV-2 got into Black
Africans in the first place, it did provide a unique admission of human
error commonly associated with laboratory contaminations, including the
threat of viral particles crossing species barriers. In this case, once
again, the HB vaccine is logically implicated.
For A HB Vaccine AIDS Link
During the early
1970s, researchers at the NYUMC led the world in determining
blood group compatibility between humans and simians. Investigators
here set the stage for the use of monkey blood in human vaccine
trials.(21) NYUMC dermatologists and hematologists were credited
with the discovery and analysis of the first gay Kaposi's sarcoma
(KS) lesion.(28) Across town, at the Sloan-Kettering Institute
for Cancer Research, Dermatology Department, Dr. Eleanor R. Lappano-Colletta
was busy studying viral infected tissue taken from young gay
men with KS. Between 1973 and 1974 she revealed, her dermatology
department directors were routinely communicating with NCI chiefs
and Litton affiliates including their 1971 retrovirus "project
officer," Dr. Robert Gallo, regarding the subject of her investigation-the
unique retroviral particles she was studying in the tissue samples
taken from gay KS victims.(29)
testimony raises the spectre that the 1984 contested discovery
of HTLV-III (i.e., HIV-1) by Dr. Gallo, actually followed his
learning about the teratogenic effects of a pathogenically related
virus in gay men ten years previously, and just prior to the
administration of the suspected HB vaccines in the same city
and same unique population.
Bionetics, the NYUMC was also listed among the Army's top biological
weapons contracting labs by 1969.(20) Under Army contract Dr.
Krugman routinely used mentally retarded children and gay men
to grow/culture and/or test HB viral strains and vaccines following
his MS-2 studies.(30) The pilot HB vaccines theoretically linked
here to the earliest GRID cases in NYC was overseen as well by
an advisory committee chaired by Dr. Krugman,(31) and researched
by intimate Krugman collaborator, Abbott Laboratory's L. R. Overby.
Together, Krugman and Overby evaluated HB susceptibility and
vaccination methods on NYC subjects between 1965 and the mid-1970s.(18,30,32)
Subsequently, Abbott Labs began commercially marketing MSD's
HB vaccine.(28,32,33) Later, large scale HB vaccine trial marshal
Wolf Szmuness, also affiliated with the NYC Blood Center explained
the selection criteria for Dr. Krugman's early, and his later,
HB vaccine experiments. He wrote:
in the United States with a high risk of HBV infection were considered
for such a trial: patients institutionalized for mental retardation,
patients undergoing hemodialysis, members of the medical staff
of dialysis centers, American Indians, and homosexual men. Of
these groups, a population of HBV-susceptible homosexual healthy
young men appeared to be the most suitable. Their risk of HBV
infection is unusually high, they are readily accessible through
numerous gay organizations, and their cooperation in previous
studies has been excellent.(31)
It is well known
that HIV/AIDS rates among native Americans, people of color,
blood product recipients, and homosexual males, have far exceeded
those of the general population. It might be this overlap between
populations most affected by HIV/AIDS and those selected for
early and later HB vaccine experiments, more than lifestyle risks,
provides as a common denominator for the AIDS pandemic. Given
this fact alone, the report by Poiesz et al., including anonymous
CDC authors, excluding gay NYC HB vaccine study participants,
is highly irregular at best.(21)
epidemiology suggestive of a HB vaccine triggered outbreak of
GRID in America, the data below is noteworthy: Following HB vaccine
pilot studies as discussed above, additional trials were conducted
during the mid-1970s in NYC.
In 1976, the
WSS was forced to close allegedly due to abuses sustained by
the children at the hands of school administrators. Based on
the information documented above, it is likely that many of the
approximately 5,000 children sent back to their communities in
1976 were among the world's first AIDS victims.(21)
HB vaccine trials in NYC began after the closing of WSS. In 1978,
1,083 gay men were inoculated with the Merck developed and Abbott
marketed vaccine. In March, 1980, approximately eighteen months
after the NYC inoculations ended, gay men in five other American
cities began to receive the vaccine. These cities included Los
Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, St. Louis, and Chicago from where
1,402 homosexuals were initially recruited from VD clinics. Later,
thousands more joined additional HB vaccine trials.
and 1984 the percentage of HIV-positive gay men in NYC rose dramatically.
In other HB vaccine study populations the rise in HIV-1 sero-prevalence
and AIDS was also disconcerting. In San Francisco, for instance,
among those who had been subjects in the trials (n=6,875) the
HIV/AIDS rate rose from 4 to 68 percent between 1978 and 1984.(18)
This increase was precipitous contrasting the rate of HIV infection
among homosexual men reported elsewhere in 1989. Across the U.S.
HIV/AIDS rates varied from 0 percent in many communities to 70
percent in NYC, with significantly less in San Francisco.
In 1982, concerns
were expressed at the Pasteur Institute regarding the possible
link between AIDS and the Merck-manufactured HB vaccine. Luc
Montagnier was then assured by CDC HB chief Don Francis, Max
Essex's protege, that "no link between AIDS and the [HB] vaccine
inoculations" had been found. Yet, a year later, Dr. Francis
sent Dr. Montagnier thirteen blood samples from GRID patients
all of whom received experimental HB vaccines.(21, 33)
Dr. Francis had
expressed concern regarding the apparent association between
feline leukemia virus like illness striking gay men in NYC, Los
Angeles, and San Francisco and the distribution of HB cases. "Combine
these two diseases-feline leukemia and hepatitis-and you have
the immune deficiency," he surmised.(34) This was much like what
a NATO scientific audience discussed in 1971 when Gallo et al.,
explained combining synthetic RNA and feline leukaemia virus
(FELV) "template" with "human type C" viruses-those associated
with cancers of the lymph nodes-to increase the rate of DNA production
(and subsequent provirus and virus reproduction) "as much as
thirty times."(35) Such hybrid viruses, these researchers reported,
caused many cancers besides leukemias and lymphomas, including
sarcomas. Other Gallo, NCI, and Litton Bionetics teams reported
modifying, at that time, SV40 by infusing it with nucleic acids
from other species including FELV, avian myeloblastosis virus
(AMV), both associated with leukemia and sarcoma development,
and mouse sarcoma RNA to make them severely immunosuppression
in 1985, Harold Jaffe, deputy director for AIDS science at the
CDC, with co-worker Andrew Moss, "presented data from the San
Francisco HB study that found the virus was present in blood
of 4.5 percent of the study's subjects in 1978, 20 percent in
1980, and 67 percent by late 1984."(37) In contrast, "only about
40 percent of a randomly selected sample of gay men [also in
San Francisco at that time] were infected. Based on this evidence,
again considering the 7-10 year incubation period for HIV/AIDS,
the "big bang" most likely occurred as Myers proposed during
the early to mid-1970s with the HB vaccine cohort preceding the
general gay, and later heterosexual, populations for epidemic
To further examine
this predominance of HIV/AIDS cases among NYC and San Francisco
HB vaccine recipients, Francis examined the blood collected from
6,800 gay men enrolled in the larger (post-pilot) HB vaccine
trials. From samples drawn between 1978 and 1980, he recorded
a 25 percent rise in HIV positivity. He too concluded that the
new pathogen had appeared among gay men by 1976 or 1977 and spread
quickly from there.(38)
data is cited by CDC official Paul O' Malley who concluded his
investigation into a suspected GRID/HB vaccine link as follows: "[A]n
inordinate number of GRID victims," he stated were in the HB
vaccine trial. "Of the first twenty-four GRID cases in San Francisco,
in fact, eleven were in the hepatitis B cohort."(34)
Based on CDC
reports, as scrutinized by investigative journalist and gay physician
Alan Cantwell, the first 26 AIDS cases were all homosexual men-20
were from NYC, and 6 were from Los Angeles.(17, 39) Conducting
an independent study paralleling this author's,(21) and drawing
similar conclusions, Dr. Cantwell reported a gross absence of
scientific prowess on the part of CDC officials investigating
an apparent HB vaccine AIDS link.(39) Conflicting interests,
he concluded, best explained the blatant biases and flawed methods
used by official investigators during studies used to reassure
the scientific/medical communities, and the general public, regarding
the safety of HB vaccines.(21,28, 39-41)
A possible route
of HIV evolution, and/or transmission, is this: 1) From the mid-1950s
through at least the 1960s, simian virus infected polio vaccine
recipients were exposed to SV40, SFR, and SIVagm,(1-5) including
gay men and mentally retarded children in New York, along with
Blacks in central Africa;(17) 2) Researchers in NYC "isolated," and
then inoculated into human vaccine study "volunteers" the MS-2
strain of HB virus. Between 1965 and 1970, these injections and
pilot HB vaccine studies may have activated an endogenous or
exogenous HIV-related retroviral gene in one or more WSS children
and/or gay males;(1,2,5,18) 3) These human derived HB viruses,
and potentially activated retroviral sequences, were then transferred
to chimpanzees, then back again to humans in NYC and central
Africa during the development and testing of four genetically
altered subtypes of the 1974-1975 experimental HB vaccine; 4)
Contamination risks were increased by the subsequent pooling
of blood donated by the test subjects who had been injected with
the chimpanzee cultured HB strains, along with biohazard and
containment problems reported by principle investigators; and
finally, 5) The four pooled blood derived HB vaccines were then
administered to thousands of test subjects including gay males
in NYC, WSS children once again, and central African Blacks.(15)
might best explain the conclusion reached by Gerald Myers, chief
of the special HIV Sequence Database AIDS Project at the Los
Alamos National Laboratory, that "the preponderance of evidence
still argues for an explosive event in the mid-1970s."(11) With
the sudden, virtually simultaneous, appearance of several HIV
major group subtypes primarily striking Africa and NYC by 1978,
given the seven to ten year incubation period of HIV/AIDS, the
HB vaccine trials, begun as early as 1965 in New York and Uganda,
and in NYC gay populations soon after, likely played a catalytic
role in the origin of the AIDS pandemic.
using PCR analysis of suspected polio and HB vaccine lots, particularly
those given to gay men and WSS children in New York before 1976,
is urgently indicated to identify possible retroviral contaminants
related to HIV/AIDS. Epidemiological efforts should also be made
to contact the families of the WSS children, as well as the gay
men in NYC who participated in the pre 1976 HB vaccine pilot
studies, to document histories relevant to further considering
to the lethal nature and severe cost of the AIDS pandemic, should
this premise be firmly established, it would beg a global reevaluation
of vaccination science, politics, and policies. Based on the
preliminary findings reported here, and in the author's earlier
investigative report,(14) at least two Third World nations have
already moved in this direction.(42)
Not readily embraced
by individuals, organizations, institutions, and/or government
agencies biased by special interests, the dire implications of
neglecting this hypothesis, and its further investigation, are
unfathomable. It may be that the health and welfare of civilization,
as we know it, depends on silencing the arrogant voices that
have directed disinterest, and even antagonism, towards the study
of AIDS's origin. Reflecting on the publication of this material,
their actions strain the ethical fabric of science, our moral
obligations as global citizens, and as a result, may be contributing
to a worsening, irreversible, and unprecedented attack against
Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H. is a Harvard School of Public
Health graduate, independent investigator, and the president and cofounder
of Tetrahedron, LLC Incorporated. Please address correspondence to: Post
Office Box 2033,
Sandpoint, Idaho 83864; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; internet
The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions in this
field, and/or personal advice provided, by Alan Cantwell, Jr.,
M.D., Robert Strecker, M.D., John Seale, M.D., Walter Kyle,
J.D., and John Martin, M.D., Ph.D, and the support, financial
and otherwise, of thousands of well-wishers since this investigation
began in 1993. Special thanks go to Dr. David Horrobin and
the peer review committee of Medical Hypothesis for objectively
evaluating this thesis, and having the heroic fortitude and
scientific integrity to commit it to print.
This paper is
dedicated to the fine efforts and genuine honesty of the late
Jonathan Mann who, with his wife, a HB vaccine investigator,
met an untimely fate on Flight 111. Far more than a medical problem,
Dr. Mann believed, AIDS is a socio-political imposition.
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19) NCI staff.
The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8 [and #9].
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The Litton "support services" contracts that included primate
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other experimental infectious agents including AuAg is found
on pp. 279-280 and 284 of Project Report #8, of 1971; for additional
documentation on hepatitis and herpes experimentation in Uganda
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LG and Martin JW. Op. cit., pp. 250-51; for detailed analysis
on flawed HB vaccine/gay AIDS study involving the CDC see pp.
240-241, and for Dr. Poiesz's potential conflicts of interest
in this regard see p. 249; for data concerning precipitous rise
in HIV/AIDS rates among HB vaccine recipients see pp. 242-243;
for dialogue with Max Essex, see pp.131-32; for NYUMC blood grouping
discussions and references see pp. 443-444; for WSS closing discussion
see p. 254.
22) Shorter E.
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27) Schulz TF.
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32) Krugman S,
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33) Shilts R.
And The Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic.
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35) Gallo RC,
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abnormality in human leukaemia. Nature 1968;218:465-466; and
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40) CDC staff.
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41) CDC staff.
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communications: from Major Caleb Gwambo, Director, Department
of Defense, Office of the President, P. O. Box 40668, Nairobi,
Kenya (2542 884466; 2542583542); and Dr. Alim Muhammad, Health
Minister, Nation of Islam, 202-397-4000; 301-894-9345)